December 2016 Special Issue Vol. 2(4), pp. 017-026
Copyright © 2016 Transcontinental Publishers


Full Length Research Paper

Nesting Ecology, Interspecific Interaction and Nesting Association of Indian Black Kite (Milvus migrans) Inhabiting the Arid Zone of Rajasthan

Sharma S. K.1 and Soni K. C.2

1Scholar, Maharaja Ganga Singh University,Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
2Laboratory of raptor research, Department of Zoology, Govt.Lohia P. G. College,Churu, Rajasthan, India-331001


Accepted 30 November, 2016  


The nesting ecology, interspecific interaction and nesting association of the Black kite (Milvus migrans) were studied during the 2012-2014 breeding season in 400 km2 area in and around Churu city of Rajasthan, India. Total 38 nest sites of the Black kite were located within the study area. Majority of the nest sites were located in the heart of urban and rural area and nearby feeding sites. Among 38 nests sites 24 (63.15%) were permanent in nature while 14 (36.84%) were temporary in nature. Among 24 nest sites, 5 (20.83%) were found in rural area and 19 (79.16%) in urban area. Among temporary 14 nest sites, 3 (21. 42%) were found in rural area and 11 (78. 57%) in urban area. The Black kite more frequent preferred nest on tallest available tree with highest relatively density, canopy cover and DBH at nest site. The average nest tree/object height was 10.67 ± SD 9.28 m. above ground. The nesting tree/object was found to vary from 6.06 to 50.00 m. The nest position from ground was at an average of 9.50 ± SD 9.06 m. The nest height varied in the range of 5.10 to 48.01 m. The average canopy cover was 5.36 ± SD 1.28 m. Average data on DBH was also observed with an average of 0.57 ± SD 0.11 m. The DBH noted to vary in the range of 0.43 to 0.73. Trees selected to nest showed no significant correlation between the nest height and canopy cover (t= 2.6712, df=70, p<.01), and total heights of the trees and the nest heights (t= .5537, df= 70, p>.01), data showed significant correlation between total heights and nest heights. Nest placement on the sub branch of the tree was found with an average of 2.71 ±SD 0.38 m. from the end of the trunk. The numbers of flight pathways at each nest site were also counted and it was found with an average of 2.79 ±SD 0.81 and it varied in the range of 1 to 4. The Black kite nests singly, usually high in a tree or man-made objects such as Peepal, Neem, Khejari, Ardu, Firash, Sapheda, Power pylon, Flood light, Mobile tower and Masjid top. Often the tree and man-made objects is very close to human habitations. Nests are often used annually in spite of nest failures due to harassment by House crow, Sand storms and Human disturbance.

Keywords: Nesting ecology, Black kite, Arid zone, Rajasthan, India

Cite this Reference:

Sharma SK, Soni KC (2016). Nesting Ecology, Interspecific Interaction and Nesting Association of Indian Black Kite (Milvus migrans) Inhabiting the Arid Zone of Rajasthan. Interlink Continental J. Med. Med. Sci. 2(4): 017-026.