December 2017 Special Issue Vol. 3(1), pp. 007-012 
Copyright © 2017 Transcontinental Publishers

 

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among University of Belize students

Danladi Chiroma Husaini1*, Diomar Salazar2, Roberta Thimbriel2, Innocent Nwachukwu2 and Augustine 'Dele Domingo3

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of The West Indies, Cave Hill Campus Barbados.
2Allied Health Department, Medical Laboratory Technology Program, University of Belize.
3Mathematics, Physics and Information Technology Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Belize.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: danladi.husaini@mycavehill.uwi.edu, danladihusaini@gmail.com

Accepted 12 May, 2016

Abstract

Presently there is no known reported data on cardiovascular disease risks assessment in college students in Belize. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality the world over.  In Belize, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type two are the major metabolic disorders and among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although the prevalence of these disorders have been reported in the wider population, no known comprehensive study exist among college students in Belize. To assess risk factors associated with developing cardiovascular diseases among college students with the aim of providing a pilot baseline data for use in planning a much larger scale study to address issues of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders among college population in Belize. Thirty-eight (38) registered undergraduate university of Belize students ages 17 – 30 volunteered for the study. Standardized protocols and procedures were used to obtain and analyze blood pressures, anthropometrics and blood chemistries among the students. The mean for all observed results were: age 20.61 (± 3.5); BMI 23.4 (± 4.15); Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), 116.74 mmHg. 39.47% had SBP ≥ 120mmHg. Mean biochemical studies showed: Total Cholesterol (TC) 140.89mg/dL; Triglycerides (TAG) levels for males (175.85mg/dL) were higher compared with female participants (83.17mg/dL). 13.16% had TAG above 150mg/dL while mean GLU values were observed to be 91.85mg/dL. 64% of students had family history of CVD’s; 63.16% reported eating healthy diets; 76.32% engaged in physical activity; 73.68% do not engage in harmful alcohol consumption while none (0%) of the students reported smoking cigarettes. Although some of the individuals investigated in this study had one or more risk of developing cardiovascular disease, generally majority of the students showed a low risk for the disease.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, triglycerides, glucose, BMI, cholesterol, Belize.

Cite this Reference

Danladi Chiroma Husaini, Diomar Salazar, Roberta Thimbriel, Innocent Nwachukwu and Augustine 'Dele Domingo (2017). Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among University of Belize students. Interlink Continental J. Med. Med. Sci. 3(1): 007-012.

References

AL-Ghurabi ME, Aljazaeri SA. Estimation of creatinine of neonatal hyperbilrubinemia. World J. Pharm. Res.  4(7): 270-278. www.wjpr.net

American Heart Association (2016). Factors that increase your risk for heart disease. AHA Scientific Position. Available at: https://www.goredforwomen.org/home/know-your-risk/factors-that-increase-your-risk/

Berkowitz AD, Perkins HW (1986). Problem Drinking among College Students: A Review of Recent Research. J. Am. College Health. 35(1). DOI:10.1080/07448481.1986.9938960

Brown LB, Dresen RK, Eggett DL (2005). College students can benefit by participating in a prepaid meal plan. J. Am. Diet Assoc. 105:445–448.

Burke JD, Reilly RA, Morrell JS, Lofgren IE 2009. The University of New Hampshire’s Young Adult Health Risk Screening Initiative. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 109:1751–1758.

Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) (2001). Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 285:2486–2497.

Fernandes JF, Lofgren IE (2011). Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students. J. Am. college of health. 59 (4).

Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, et al (2002). Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999 – 2000. JAMA. 288:1723– 1727.

Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH (2002). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 287:356–359.

Galassi A, Reynolds K, He J (2006). Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 119(10):812-819.

Gharaibeh MY., Alzoubi KH., Khabour OF, Tinawi L., Hamad R., Esraa F. Keewan EF., Matarneh SK., Alomari MA (2012). Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among University Students: The Gender Factor. Card. Res. 3 (4): 172-179. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4021/cr198e. http://www.cardiologyres.org

Goodman E, McEwen BX, Huang B, et al (2005). Social inequalities in biomarkers of cardio- vascular risk in adolescence. Psychosom. Med. 67:9–15.

Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Nelson MC, et al (2004). Five-year obesity incidence in the transitions period between adolescence and adulthood: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80:569–575.

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Asso- ciation/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 112:2735–2752.

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Asso- ciation/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation. 112:2735–2752.

Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE (2003). Television watching and other sedentary behaviours in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 289:1785–91. 

Huang TT, Kempf AM, Strother ML, et al (2004). Overweight and components of the metabolic syndrome in college students. Diabetes Care. 27:3000–3001.

Huang TT, Shimel A, Lee RE, Delancey W, Strother ML (2007). Metabolic risks among college students: prevalence and gender differences. Metab. Syndr. Relat. Disord. 5:365–372.

Iannuzzi A, Licensiati MR, Acampora C, et al (2006). Carotid artery stiffness in obese children with the metabolic syndrome. Am. J. Cardiol. 97:528–531.

Irwin JD (2007). The prevalence of physical activity maintenance in a sample of university students: A longitudinal study. J. Am. Coll. Health. 56:37–41.

Khader YS, Alsadi AA (2008). Smoking habits among university students in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors. Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 14(4).

Levitsky DA, Halbmaier CA, Mrdjenovic G (2004). The freshman weight gain: a model for the study of the epidemic of obesity. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 28:1435–1442.

Li S, Chen W, Srinivasan SR, et al (2003). Child- hood cardiovascular risk factors and carotid vascular changes in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. JAMA. 2003;290:2271–6. Erratum in: JAMA. 290:2943.

Lowry R, Galuska DA, Fulton JE, et al (2000). Physical activity, food choice, and weight man- agement goals and practices among U.S. college students. Am. J. Prev. Med. 18:18–27.

Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, et al (2002). Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA. 288:1728–1732.

PAHO (2009). Survey of Diabetes, Hypertension and Chronic Disease Risk Factors Belize. http://www.paho.org/blz/index.php?option=com_docman&Itemid=250. Retrieved 22 Feb 2016.

Park C, Guallar E,  John A, Linton JA.,  Chul Lee D, Jang Y,  Son DK,  Han E, Soo Jin Baek SJ,  Yun YD,  Jee SH, Samet JM (2013). Fasting Glucose Level and the Risk of Incident Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases. Diabetes Care. 36(7): 1988–1993. Published online 2013 Jun 12. doi:  10.2337/dc12-1577

Patterson F, Lerman C, Kaufmann VG, Neuner GA, McGovern JA (2004). Cigarette Smoking Practices Among American College Students: Review and Future Directions. J. Am. College Health. 52 (5). DOI:10.3200/JACH.52.5.203-212

Smith SC Jr (2010). Screening for high-risk cardiovascular disease: a challenge for the guidelines. Arch. Intern. Med. 170:40–42.

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (2004). National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US) 2.

Thom T, Haase N, Rosamond W, et al (2006). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2006 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Sub- committee. Circulation. 113(6):e85–151. Erratum in: Circulation. 2006; 113:e696.

Wong-McClure RA, Gregg EW, Barceló A, Lee K, Abarca-Gómez L, Sanabria-López L, Tortós-Guzmán J (2015). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Central America: a cross-sectional population-based study. Rev. Panam. Salud. Publica. 38(3):202-208.

Zebekakis PE, Nawrot T, Thijs L, et al (2005). Obesity is associated with increased arterial stiff- ness from adolescence until old age. J. Hypertens. 23:1789–1791.

Related Articles


Original Research Article
Alao OA, Ajayi IR, Babalola MT, Ajiboye Y, Musiliyu KA, Ajayi AA and Olagunju OE
Empirical Study of the Health Effects of Extreme Weather Conditions on Human and the Environment
October 2017 Vol: 2(1): - [Abstract] [Full Text - PDF] (243 KB)